## Curiouser and curiouser – the case of the LRU bug

My LRU queue bug is continuing to puzzle me – and it’s not as simple as a data misalignment. In fact it does not appear to be a data misalignment issue at all: before I was trapping a lot of hardware exceptions under that header because it was a common fault when I got the code wrong, but a closer examination showed it to be an illegal opcode exception.

How that could be caused by the size of the local memory we were simulating was beyond me – but perhaps some code was being pushed out of alignment and an illegal instruction created, I thought.

But that does not appear to be the issue at all – in fact the really puzzling thing is that the exact same string of opcodes at the same addresses runs without a problem in the version with the functional memory sizes as with the “broken” memory sizes.

The only difference seems to be that when the broken code (ie the setup with the non $mod 4$ number of 4k memory pages) raises an illegal opcode exception, the good code raises a page fault.

It looks like it might be a bug in the simulator itself – and having written that I am hoping that the bad workman’s curse now befalls me and I quickly find it was all my fault to begin with. But as of now I am drawing a blank.

## Simulating global and local memory on OVP

Had a good meeting with my PhD supervisor today: he was in London – I didn’t have to make a flying visit to York.

So the next steps with my OVPsim Microblaze code is to model global and local memory – by default OVPsim treats all memory as local, mapping the full 32-bit address space and sparsely filling that as needed. I have imposed an additional constraint of only mapping a few pages, but these are still all “local”: so while the code takes time to execute, what is in effect, a FIFO page replacement algorithm, there is no time for page loads.

The way round this seems to be to build my global memory as a memory-mapped peripheral device – I can then impose time delays on reads and writes.

But I suppose I am writing this blog instead of writing that code…

## Why I owe @slugonamission a (or several) large drink(s)

I have been struggling with a problem with my Microblaze simulation on OVPsim all week.

I have been trying to make a start on implementing a simple demand paging system and to trigger the hardware exception that the Microblaze CPU manual says should happen when you either try to read from a mapped page that is not in the TLB (ie, a “minor” page fault) or has not been mapped at all (a “major” page fault).

My problem was that – despite having, I thought, specified all the correct parameters for the Microblaze and knowing that I had virtual memory mappings work well, it simply was not happening for me. Instead of the expected exception handling, the simulation reported an error and exited.

But Jamie Garside from the University of York’s computer science department saved my life by (correctly) pointing out that what I also needed to do was turn on `ICM_ATTR_SIMEX`. Otherwise the simulation will always exit on an exception (or halt in GDB).

I can see why that might make sense – at least the halting in the debugger bit: if an exception is about to be fired you can halt the machine while it is still executing in virtual, as opposed to real, mode and see what has caused it.

It was also a reminder to RTFM – in this case not just the Microblaze manual, but also the OVPsim manual. I cannot rely on Jamie doing that for me everytime.

So to fix my problem I ORed in the missing attribute:

`#define SIM_ATTRS (ICM_ATTR_DEFAULT|ICM_ATTR_SIMEX)`

## Scale of the task

I have had a frustrating few days trying to get to grips with two new pieces of the technology: the OVP simulator and the Microblaze processor.

Finally I think the fog is beginning to clear. But that also reveals just what a task I have in front of me: namely to write some kernel code that will boot the Microblaze, establish a virtual memory system and then hand over control to user code, which will have to trap memory faults and pass control back to the privileged kernel.

It is not quite writing an operating system, even a simple one, but it is actually undertaking to write what would be at the core of an OS.

Of course, there are lots of places to borrow ideas from – not least the Linux kernel – but it’s a bit daunting, if also reasonably exciting.

Preciously little books about to help – I shelled out to buy this (having borrowed it from the York Uni library and found it to be an excellent general introduction to the area) – but it’s not a guide to OVP never mind to the Microblaze. If anyone does know of a book that does either I’d be very grateful (maybe it’s my age but electronic books are very much second best to me – you just cannot flick from page to page looking for that key element you read the other day and so on.)