I have struggled with this issue for several weeks now and I didn’t find the explanations in Starting Forth or the 2012 Forth standard or even the GForth documentation particularly enlightening, so I wanted to write this to – hopefully – add some clarity to anyone else trying to get this right in their own Forth implementation.
The standard says this of POSTPONE:
( “<spaces>name” — )
Skip leading space delimiters. Parse name delimited by a space. Find name. Append the compilation semantics of name to the current definition. An ambiguous condition exists if name is not found.
But what does that actually mean? I think there are three rules you need to apply (of which more later), but first you need to think about where they are applied. Typically you might have something like this:
: ENDIF POSTPONE THEN ; IMMEDIATE : EXAMPLE IF ." Say something" ELSE ." Say something different" ENDIF ;
ENDIF here replacing the modern standard THEN (some older Forth code may contain the ENDIF word, and our ENDIF should be a perfect replacement).
Now, we have defined ENDIF in its own word but we want it to act inside the word EXAMPLE – in this case we want it to ensure that what we might call the contractual obligations of THEN (in this case to inform ELSE clause where code following the ‘true’ path should jump to when it hits ELSE).
Now, defining our ENDIF word as IMMEDIATE ensures it is activated when we are compiling EXAMPLE, but it all it did was call itself then it would do literally nothing (as in Riscyforth, in any case, THEN in execution is a NOP).
What we actually want to see happen is that compilation actions of THEN are activated and that their effects are seen in EXAMPLE.
In this case that means calculating and inserting the jump-to address for the ELSE. Exactly what a THEN would do if it were there in EXAMPLE.
(The badging of ENDIF as IMMEDIATE then gives us a second boost – because that labelling means it doesn’t get called when EXAMPLE is executed, so we don’t have to worry about it trying to compile in those actions every time EXAMPLE is called.)
In Riscyforth there are a number of words – currently LITERAL, DOES>, ABORT”, .”, S”, ‘, [‘], COMPILE,, IS, TO, [CHAR], ACTION-OF, AGAIN, UNTIL, DO, ?DO, LOOP, +LOOP, -LOOP, UNLOOP, LEAVE, RECURSE, I, J, EXIT, IF, ELSE, THEN, OF, WHILE, REPEAT, and ; (though others will probably need to be added as the code is matured) – that need special handling on compilation and that has to be reflected if they are POSTPONE’d with those special handling routines compiled into the colon word being worked – for the other, “ordinary”, words what has to happen is that a reference to them is what gets compiled in – here’s another example:
: -IF POSTPONE 0= POSTPONE IF ; IMMEDIATE
In this case we’ve defined a new word -IF which works in the opposite sense (Boolean-wise) to the standard IF, i.e, what was FALSE on IF is treated as TRUE in -IF and so on. The key here is that, for example:
: WASFALSE -IF ." Result was FALSE " ELSE ." Result was TRUE " THEN ;
That the 0= gets compiled into the definition of WASFALSE and not left to languish inside -IF. Because – again – -IF, being marked as IMMEDIATE, never gets called again after the initial invocation on compilation – what it leaves behind is what gets called.
So – those three rules:
- If a word is marked as IMMEDIATE then POSTPONE strips it of that character and it becomes JAW – just another word. These words are not compiled into a new definition, they are simply executed when they are reached.
- If a word requires special handling on compilation that special handling should be repeated when it is POSTPONE’d.
- All POSTPONE’d words that are not immediate should be compiled into the current colon definition being worked on (that phrase “the current definition” from the standard is extremely confusing).